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    茶卡鹽湖是怎樣形成的?

    2019-1-27 01:28| 發布者: 天空之城| 查看: 639| 評論: 1|原作者: 科普中國|來自: 科普中國-科學原理一點通

    摘要: 茶卡鹽湖為什么被稱為“天空之鏡”呢?茶卡鹽湖是怎樣形成的呢?
       我們說到“湖”,首先映入腦海的肯定是“波瀾不驚,上下天光,一碧萬頃”,或是“春雨斷橋人不渡,小舟撐出柳陰來”的景象。那你想過有人可以在湖面上行走,騎自行車嗎?不是冬季噢。什么?像《海賊王》里的海軍上將,“青雉”一樣吃一顆“冰凍果實”,擁有超能力,就可以實現了?這個可不現實,只有動畫片里才能出現。但是,有個地方可以讓你實現“湖上行走”的愿望,是哪里呢?這就是我國的“天空之鏡”——茶卡鹽湖。

       很多人都知道在遙遠的南美洲內陸國玻利維亞有個著名的“天空之鏡”——烏尤尼鹽沼,因為其獨特地地理環境和氣候,形成了夢幻般的景象。但你未必知道中國西部青海省也分布著“天空之鏡”。而青海湖西南角方向,距離西寧約300公里處的茶卡鎮的茶卡鹽湖便是青海省眾多“天空之鏡”的其中一個。

       茶卡鹽湖為什么被稱為“天空之鏡”呢?游人為什么能夠在湖面上行走呢?這是因為茶卡鹽湖湖水含鹽量很大,會自然結晶成為一片白色的湖面,將天空、云朵和對岸的山都倒映在湖里非常漂亮。我們還可以赤腳走到湖面上觀看和拍攝自己的倒影,宛若天空之鏡。

       茶卡鹽湖是怎樣形成的呢?鹽湖的形成主要與地殼運動有關。青藏高原很久以前是海洋的一部分,經過長期的地殼運動,地面抬起,形成了世界上最高的高原,結果海水留在了一些低洼地帶,形成了許多鹽湖和池塘,茶卡鹽湖就是其中一個。茶卡湖內的鹽幾乎無窮無盡,因為雨水會將更多的鹽從周圍的山上帶下。茶卡鹽湖可以說是高原對海洋的記憶。
       茶卡鹽湖曾經是一個外流湖,向東流入共和盆地,注入黃河。10~13萬年左右發生的構造隆起,使得茶卡鹽湖變成了內陸湖。面積比青海湖小,年降雨量小,故每年能注入到這里的水量特別少,加上這里蒸發又特別厲害,故能形成這個含鹽量極高的鹽湖。

       茶卡鹽湖是柴達木盆地有名的天然結晶鹽湖。茶卡鹽湖的湖水面積,水深受季節影響明顯,雨季湖水面積可達104平方公里,相當于杭州西湖的十幾倍,干季湖水面積明顯減少。鹽湖底部有石鹽層,一般厚5米,最厚處達9.68米。古往今來,茶卡鹽湖就因盛產“大青鹽”而久負盛名。初步探明的儲量達4億4千萬噸以上,據說可供全國人民使用約75年。茶卡鹽極易開采,人們只消揭開十幾厘米的鹽蓋,就可以從下面撈取天然的結晶鹽。開采過的鹵水,幾年之后又重新結晶成鹽層。這么厚的鹽層,人在上面行走肯定沒問題了,當然要注意安全哦,有的時候,一不小心也會踩到鹽洞里。
       隨著青海旅游知名度的提升,來青海旅游的人逐年增多。由于茶卡距離西寧路程較遠,所以如果想一睹鹽湖的風采,需要安排單獨一天的時間來體驗。到了青海湖,不走的更遠一些,看看茶卡,是一種遺憾。


    本作品為“科普中國-科學原理一點通”原創 轉載時務請注明出處
    作者: 張嬌 [責任編輯: 宋金玉]

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    引用 zhangerliang 2019-2-10 10:08
    湖與濕地形成套路相似

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