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    中國專家組目前已基本弄清京津冀區域大氣重污染成因

    2019-3-14 11:16| 發布者: 天空之城| 查看: 368| 評論: 0|原作者: 天空之城

     中新社北京3月3日電 (記者 阮煜琳 尹力)通過歷時近兩年的集中聯合攻關,國家大氣污染防治攻關聯合中心專家3日表示,目前已基本弄清了京津冀及周邊地區大氣重污染的成因。遠超環境承載力的污染排放強度,是京津冀及周邊地區大氣重污染形成的主因。

    資料圖:北京市民在重污染天氣下出行。中新社記者 賈天勇 攝

      2017年4月以來,中國開展了大氣重污染成因與治理攻關項目,匯集國內2000多名環境科學、大氣科學、氣象科學以及行業治理等方面的優秀科學家和一線科研工作者,建成了天地空綜合立體觀測網,集中開展聯合攻關,目前已基本弄清了京津冀及周邊地區大氣重污染的成因,實現了對重污染過程的精細化定量化描述。
      重污染主因:遠超環境承載力的污染排放強度
      遠超環境承載力的污染排放強度,是京津冀及周邊地區大氣重污染形成的主因。國家大氣污染防治攻關聯合中心副主任張遠航說,京津冀及周邊地區偏重的產業結構、以煤為主的能源結構、以公路為主的交通結構,導致單位國土面積煤炭消費量是全國平均水平的4倍,鋼鐵、焦炭、玻璃、原料藥等產量均占全國40%以上,大宗物料80%依靠柴油貨車運輸。
      從時間分布上看,受采暖影響,秋冬季一次細顆粒物(PM2.5)和有機碳、黑碳等組分的月均排放水平是非采暖季的1.5至4倍,而保定等散煤用量大的城市,上述污染物在秋冬季的排放水平更高。
      從空間分布上看,區域內污染物排放總量大的城市為唐山、天津、石家莊、邯鄲、淄博。從行業分布來看,鋼鐵及焦化行業主要分布在唐山和晉冀魯豫交界地區,玻璃行業集中在邢臺、淄博等地,石化化工主要集中在淄博、天津、滄州、石家莊等地。在京津冀及周邊地區“2+26”城市PM2.5年均濃度達標(每立方米35微克)約束下,一次PM2.5、氮氧化物(NOx)、揮發性有機物(VOCs)及氨氣(NH3)等污染物排放量仍遠超環境容量。
      重污染形成誘因:不利氣象條件造成污染快速累積
      京津冀及周邊地區位于太行山東側“背風坡”和燕山南側的半封閉地形中,削弱了該地區秋冬季盛行西北季風的作用,“弱風區”特征明顯,污染物擴散條件較差。在當前高強度的污染物排放背景下,一旦出現不利氣象條件,極容易產生本地積累型污染。京津冀及周邊地區各城市污染程度受到整個區域的傳輸影響,全年平均貢獻約為20%至30%。
      二次轉化是京津冀大氣污染積累過程中爆發式增長的動力
      專家表示,PM2.5二次轉化微觀機理十分復雜,硝酸鹽、硫酸鹽、銨鹽和二次有機物等組分快速生成助推了PM2.5爆發式增長。京津冀及周邊地區大氣中NH3的濃度顯著高于美國等發達國家和地區,處于富氨狀態,近年來區域內二氧化硫的濃度不斷下降,大氣中NH3的濃度不降反升,更加有利于硝酸鹽的形成。
      張遠航介紹說,2017年10月至2019年3月初的秋冬季期間,京津冀及周邊地區共出現23次區域重污染過程。對23次污染過程的精細化定量化分析表明,每次污染過程都可以解釋為污染物本地積累、區域傳輸和二次轉化綜合作用的結果。(完)

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