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    熱帶森林迅速流失 2018被毀面積相當于英格蘭大小

    2019-5-11 00:23| 發布者: 天空之城| 查看: 303| 評論: 0|原作者: 中國新聞網

        
          據外媒報道,根據科學家測算,人類2018年摧毀的熱帶森林面積,幾乎如同英格蘭那么大。這是自2001年可取得全球衛星數據以來,熱帶森林遭受的第三大面積縮減。這個流失速度是驚人的,相等于每天每分鐘不見了30個足球場那么大的森林面積,一年合計達1200萬公頃。

      4月25日,美國馬里蘭大學“全球森林監察組織”的科學家,發布了一份年度評估報告,報告指出2018年被摧毀的熱帶森林,其中近三分之一或約36000平方公里屬于原始的原生雨林。

      研究團隊負責人維瑟說:“我們第一次能夠在人煙未至的自然雨林中,辨識出樹木覆蓋率流失了多少。這些雨林中的樹木樹齡達數百年甚至是數千年。”

      盡管國際社會與各國推出多項反制伐林的措施,但自本世紀初以來,伐林活動仍持續未減。全球流失的森林面積在2016年達到高峰,森林被砍伐主要是為了騰地給畜牧業和大型商品農業,例如亞洲和非洲生產的棕櫚油、南美出產的大豆和生物燃料作物。

      另外,種植可可等小規模商業化農作也導致森林被清除。2016年出現的厄爾尼諾現象以及巴西與印度尼西亞林火失控,加速了森林面積的流失。

      據報道,2018年被摧毀的熱帶森林,巴西占四分之一,剛果與印尼各占約10%,馬來西亞和馬達加斯加流失的林地也不少。馬達加斯加的熱帶雨林面積2018年萎縮了2%。被摧毀的原始森林,近三分之一位于巴西,約合13500平方公里,排在其后的是剛果,約合4800平方公里、印尼3400平方公里、哥倫比亞1800平方公里、玻利維亞1500平方公里。

      盡管印尼流失的原始森林面積排在前五名之列,但也被視為報告的一大亮點,因為它在2018年流失的3400平方公里森林面積,其實已經比2016年流失的面積大幅減少了63%。人類活動每年制造的溫室氣體,約30%被森林吸收。伐林不僅會排碳,還會把能吸收二氧化碳的森林面積給縮小。

      環境政策智庫世界資源研究所高級研究員西摩說:“全球森林如今進入了急癥室,地球的健康瀕于險境,僅采取創可貼式的補救方法是不夠的。每流失一公頃,我們就越靠近氣候變化失控的可怕地步。”

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