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    冷熱不均引起的大氣運動——熱力環流

    已有 64 次閱讀2019-7-4 21:07 |系統分類:地理學科

    冷熱不均引起的大氣運動——熱力環流

    地理組   張秋仙

    一、教材分析

    本節教學內容選自普通高中課程標準實驗教科書《地理》(必修1)第二章第一節冷熱不均引起的大氣運動,熱力環流是由地面冷熱不均引起的大氣運動,它是大氣運動的一種最簡單的形式,也是學生理解大氣運動這部分內容的最基礎的知識和最佳切入口,學好這部分內容是學好大氣運動的基礎,為下節學習大氣環流(三圈環流、季風環流)打好鋪墊,起到分散降低教學難度、便于學生把握的作用。

    二、教學目標

    1.知識與技能

    ①掌握熱力環流的定義,熟練閱讀熱力環流示意圖,理解熱力環流的形成過程。

    ②能夠利用熱力環流原理,解答生產、生活中的局地環流問題,達到知識拓展的目的。

    2.過程與方法

    本課遵循由問題→多媒體演示和地理小實驗獲得感性認識→分析推理運動過程→歸納概括運動規律(理性認識)→給出實際生活案例→應用規律解決實際問題的教學主線,在此過程中進一步培養學生用分析、推理、歸納等方法學習地理知識。

    3.情感態度與價值觀

    通過分析、理解、觀察熱力環流和局地環流,培養學生探索自然、熱愛科學          的精神。通過對城市風、山谷風等內容的學習,進一步提高學生的環境意識。三、教學重點與難點

    重點:熱力環流的形成過程及應用

    難點:運用熱力環流原理分析繪制山谷風、海陸風、城市風形成

    四、教學過程

    教學內容

    教學

    環節

    教學活動

    設計意圖

    教師活動

    學生活動

     

    新課導入

    展示圖片冷空調與暖氣片的安裝

    提出問題 ,為什么暖氣片裝在房間的下部,而冷空調卻安裝在房間的上部?

    思考問題

    創設情境,激發學習熱情。

    氣壓 

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    1.展示氣壓概念,再提問氣壓在垂直方向上的變化特點,并引導學生理解什么是等壓面。

    2、小結:在垂直方向上,海拔越高,氣壓越低

    地面冷熱均一,等壓面與等高面重合,平行于地面

    過渡:為什么要強調冷熱均一呢?因為如果地面冷熱不均將會引起大氣的運動,即熱力環流。

    學生思考并回答

    引入氣壓知識復習,為后面分析熱力環流形成作鋪墊。

    熱力環流的概念和形成原因

    概念:由于地面冷熱不均而形成的空氣環流,

    是大氣運動最簡單的形式。

    根本原因:地面的冷熱不均

    認真聽講

     

     

     

     

    熱力環流的形成過程 

    展示動畫:熱力環流的形成過程

     

    補充加強:在黑板作圖回顧熱力環流的形成過程

    引導學生總結作圖步驟:1、判斷熱源和冷源。2畫出垂直方向上空氣流動的箭頭(空氣受熱膨脹上升,冷卻收縮下沉)。3畫出水平方向上空氣流動的箭頭(由高壓流向低壓)

     

    學生觀察、領會熱力環流的形成過程。

    通過演示熱力環流形成過程,引導分析、思考、回答,教師的講解、歸納來使學生獲得感性認識。。

    歸納熱力環流的形成特點

    規律總結:1、近地面溫度高,氣壓低;溫度低,氣壓高。2、近地面與高空的高低氣壓相反。3、在垂直方向上,海拔升高,氣壓降低,在水平方向上,由高壓流向低壓

    4、等壓線在高壓處上凸,低壓處下凹。

    過渡:理論我們已經總結了,下面將理論應用于實際,一起來看一個地理小實驗。

    邊聽,邊做筆記

    培養歸納能力,強化理解。深化對地理現象發展過程的認識。

    熱力環流實驗

    放置一個透明的玻璃缸,在缸內放入一盆熱水和一盆冰塊,,再用保鮮膜將缸頂封住。

    請設想,煙霧的流動是順時針還是逆時針?

    講解:在這一實驗中可知,冷空氣下沉,熱空氣上升,這也是為什么要將冷空調安裝在墻體上方,暖氣片安裝在墻體下方的原因。

    過渡:這一實驗實際上展示了熱力環流的形成過程,下面我們一起來歸納熱力環流的形成過程。

    學生思考、觀察

    創設情境,激發興趣,鞏固知識

    解決導入新課時提出的問題,前后呼應

    熱力環流的形成過程 

     

    思考、歸納、總結

    培養歸納能力,強化理解。

    課堂練習

    (1)在A、B、C、D之間繪出熱力環流過程箭頭。(2)A、B、C、D四點氣壓值由高到低如何排序

    過渡:在現實生活中,熱力環流無處不在,例如我們現在所吹的海風,就與熱流環流有關

    動腦思考動手畫圖

    鞏固重點,突破難點

    討論生活中的熱力環流現象

     

    展示動畫:沙子和水升溫和降溫速度快慢的比較。

    得出:白天,陸地增溫快,為熱源,海上增溫慢,為冷源;夜間,陸地降溫快,為冷源,海上降溫慢,為熱源。

    現象一:海陸風

    作圖講解海陸風的形成原理。(海風教師講,陸風學生動手畫)

    過渡:課已經上的差不多了,下面和老師一起來聽一段音樂——《軍港之夜》來放松一下。

    歌詞中有這樣一段,“海風你輕輕地吹, 海浪你輕輕地搖, 遠航的水兵多么辛勞”。其中,“海風”一詞用詞不當,應該為“陸風”

    現象二:城市風

    根據市區和郊區的溫度差別,引導學生分析 “熱島效應”原理。讓學生城市風推導工業區的布局。

    現象三:山谷風

    分析山區山谷風的形成

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    學生認真聽講,討論并回答。

    激發興趣,鼓勵參與,培養學生的合作意識、及分析解決問題的能力。

    學以致用。

    課堂小結

     

    教師引導學生回顧小結

     

     

    課堂鞏固練習

    練習

    引導、提示

    思考并回答

    測試學生運用模式解決實際問題的能力。

    五、板書

    大氣運動——熱力環流

    1、氣壓:海拔升高,氣壓降低

           海拔降低,氣壓升高

    2、熱力環流

    (1)概念

    (2)根本原因

    (3)形成過程

    (4)常見的熱力環流:海陸風

                       城市風

                       山谷風

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