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    [西北地區] 天下黃土第一塬:甘肅慶陽董志塬

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    發表于 2019-3-25 22:30:35 | 只看該作者 回帖獎勵 |倒序瀏覽 |閱讀模式

       董志塬、早勝塬、宮河塬、孟壩塬、盤克塬……甘肅省慶陽是世界上黃土塬面最集中分布的區域之一,境內有豐富的黃土塬面資源,面積在1萬畝以上的塬有37個。但長期以來,水土流失將塬面“撕裂”,塬面逐年萎縮,溝頭前進、溝岸擴張、溝床下切,有的已經危及城郊邊緣,嚴重制約著全市經濟社會的可持續發展和人民群眾生命財產安全。

      

      破裂的董志塬

      如果說慶陽是黃土高原的核心區域,那么董志塬就是這核心區域的心臟地帶。

      董志塬是目前世界上黃土層最厚、保存最完整的黃土塬,素有“天下黃土第一塬”之稱,上個世紀被譽為“隴東糧倉”。董志塬曾經南北長110多公里,東西平均寬約50公里。因為水土流失嚴重,時至今日,南北長剩余89公里,東西最寬處46公里,平均寬度不足18公里,最窄處兩個溝頭相距僅剩50米左右,隨時都有“腰斬”的危險。

      水利部關于《渭河流域2003暴雨洪水與水土保持調研報告》數據顯示,董志塬是黃土高原地區最大的高平原,自唐代以來的1300多年間,塬地被蠶食面積達90余萬畝,年平均蠶食約690畝。

      這些觸目驚心的數字背后威脅的正是人類自己,據有關統計,董志塬37條塬面上距溝頭、溝邊50米以內的學校有27所、學生10837人,涉及農戶5384戶、37470人,直接威脅農用及商用建筑物200多座、資產價值達到20多億元。

      由于塬區地質地理條件特殊,加之慶陽生態環境脆弱,在洪水作用下,完整的塬面不斷被切割,逐年萎縮,如同一道道傷疤令人痛心。

      “只要一下雨,雨水就會裹挾著泥沙傾瀉而下,沖走的是沃土,留下的是貧瘠。目前董志塬地區水土流失面積達到9218平方公里,占總面積的百分之九十五以上,年入黃河泥沙高達6599萬噸。

      “隨著基礎設施建設和資源開發利用等人為活動的影響,董志塬區溯源侵蝕活躍,水土流失嚴重,導致溝床下切、溝頭前進、溝岸擴張,塬面萎縮逐年加劇。特別是董志塬這塊黃土高原中面積最大、保存最完整的大塬,面積縮減速度之快,令人震驚。”冰凍三尺非一日之寒,董志塬的今天正是人類活動長年日積月累的痛楚。

      “這里的雨水根本留不住,下了雨就成了泥,沖刷而下成了泥漿,想要雨水留在山灣間根本不可能。”嚴重的水土流失,導致生態環境不斷惡化,洪水造成的滑坡、崩塌等地質災害以及高溫、干旱、沙塵暴等災害性天氣經常發生,嚴重制約著這里經濟社會健康可持續發展。

      “固溝保塬”力保青山綠水

      “由于慶陽在甘肅省黃土高原地區的特殊地位,歷來慶陽上下都非常重視水土保持問題,在各種不利的條件下力爭水土流失問題得到遏制。”在這樣的背景下,“固溝保塬”工程應運而生。2014年底,慶陽提出了全面實施“固溝保塬”綜合治理項目,并就此做了充分的調研、論證和規劃。

        在慶陽市境內,塬區的光熱條件好,適宜種植冬小麥、玉米、高粱、糜谷、豆類、馬鈴薯等糧食作物,水土流失造成塬面萎縮耕地減少,同時降低了土壤肥力和土壤中所含有機質,溝頭前進、溝道加寬也會破壞耕作區基礎設施,因此,實施“固溝保塬”工程,對保住塬面、保護耕地資源,保持和增強糧食生產能力至關重要。“據測算,‘固溝保塬’綜合治理后,可新增耕地約600萬畝。”

      據了解,目前,慶陽市實施“固溝保塬”已經有了一些行之有效的辦法,特別是黃委會西峰水土保持科學實驗站在南小河溝綜合治理過程中探索出的“塬面徑流調控、坡面植被恢復、溝道水沙集蓄”三道防線治理模式,對控制水土流失、保護和修復生態效果非常顯著。

      在此基礎上,慶陽市提出了“固溝保塬”綜合治理的總體思路,就是建成塬面、溝頭溝岸、坡面、溝道四個相對獨立而又相互聯系的防治區,形成自上而下、層層設防、節節攔蓄的立體防治體系。而在治理措施上按照“塬面徑流調控、溝頭溝岸加固防護、坡面植被恢復、溝道水沙集蓄”四道防線進行布局。堅持工程、生物、水保耕作相結合,按不同區域各有側重原則進行對位配置,形成點、線、面結合,片、網、帶配套的綜合防治體系。

       實施“固溝保塬”工程,對保護黃土塬地質地貌形態、保護隴東糧倉和發展國家旱作農業示范區、保護能源化工基地和促進區域經濟社會發展有著重要意義,對搞好扶貧開發和促進農民脫貧致富有著重要的現實意義。

      

      


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