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    [美麗亞細亞] 國際棕櫚油可持續發展論壇召開 探討“安全、健康與可持續”

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    發表于 2019-5-11 00:32:34 | 只看該作者 回帖獎勵 |倒序瀏覽 |閱讀模式

     棕櫚油是目前世界上生產量、消費量和國際貿易量最大的植物油品種,因其煎炸穩定性、氧化穩定性較突出,長期以來,被大量應用于食品加工和餐飲烹調領域。但是,一直以來,對棕櫚油安全性、營養性的質疑也不斷被人提及。為了更科學、理性地看待棕櫚油的健康、營養與食品安全,在近日召開的2019年國際食品安全與健康大會——棕櫚油可持續發展論壇上,中外食品專家對棕櫚油的應用價值和實際情況、棕櫚油種植的環境保護和可持續發展等問題進行探討。

      國家食品安全風險評估中心總顧問陳君石研究員圍繞“油脂與健康”做主旨發言。河南工業大學谷克仁教授介紹了棕櫚油在食品工業中的應用現狀及趨勢。來自印度尼西亞和新加坡的專家就棕櫚油品質管理與應用特性進行分享。江南大學王興國教授就棕櫚油加工與使用過程風險因子成因與防控進行報告。此外相關行業代表也就棕櫚油產業的可持續發展、油脂安全助力食品加工快速發展等話題展開了研討。

      全球棕櫚油消費前景展望

      江南大學王興國教授介紹說,棕櫚油作為世界上生產量、消費量和國際貿易量最大的植物油品種,目前每年全球產量大約為6500萬噸,與大豆油、菜籽油并稱為“世界三大植物油”,在餐飲業、食品工業等領域的廣泛運用,并影響著各行各業的發展。棕櫚油在食品工業中廣泛應用于食用調和油、烘焙食品、糖果、嬰兒食品等的原料,在美味的方便食品中,如方便面、蛋糕、面包、冰淇淋、沙拉醬中都不可或缺。

      “棕櫚油作為世界上最重要的植物油品種之一,目前世界上印度尼西亞與馬來西亞為棕櫚油主要生產國,兩個國家的產量共占全球棕油產量的86%以上,馬來西亞同時也是世界最大的棕櫚油出口國,印度棕櫚油消費居首位。”金光集團全球農業資源公司CEO Hemant Bhatt介紹說。

      棕櫚油是由棕櫚果壓榨而來。棕櫚果經水煮、碾碎、榨取工藝后,得到毛棕櫚油,毛棕櫚油經過精煉,去除游離脂肪酸、天然色素、氣味后,得到精煉棕櫚油(RBD PO)及棕櫚色拉油(RBD PKO)。預計未來全球棕櫚油的消費量將會繼續保持穩定增長的趨勢,2022年,全球棕櫚油消費量將突破7000萬噸。

      棕櫚油和其他食用油一樣,容易被消化、吸收、以及促進健康。飽和與不飽和脂肪酸的比例,在棕櫚油剛好是平衡的,這是其他食用油所不具有的特性。它還含有大量的抗氧和抗癌物質和具有降低膽固醇的成分;在食品工業方面,棕櫚油一般不需要經過氫化處理。因此,以棕櫚油為油脂原料制成的食品不含反式油脂。因其這些特性,使棕櫚油成為健康的食用油之一。

      在食品行業中,棕櫚油是被最廣泛使用深受食品制造業歡迎的優質油脂。棕櫚油和大豆油、菜籽油、橄欖油等其他植物性油脂相比,棕櫚油適量的亞油酸含量和極少的亞麻酸含量,以及高含量的天然抗氧化劑使其適合直接用于幾乎所有煎炸食品中,加工的食品具有很好的氧化穩定性,而且這也是其在世界各地的主要用途。另外雖然不含亞麻酸,但含有大量的類胡蘿卜素(500~700mg/kg)、維生素E(600~1000mg/kg)、甾醇和角鯊烯等營養成分。這些特點,在方便面上的應用是非常合適的。因而,油炸方便面的油炸脫水工藝才會選擇使用棕櫚油。

      在嬰兒食品方面,低熔點液體棕櫚油一般有10%-15%的棕櫚酸在甘三脂的β位上,這一結構使該油脂容易被嬰兒消化,與其他植物油混合后所得油脂適合生產嬰兒食品。

      另外,棕櫚油在烘焙食品中主要用在起酥用,對食品有潤滑作用,改善風味和增加營養,可以調節面筋的脹潤度,提升層次性。起酥油能影響烘焙食品的乳化作用,吃起來口感好,并且清真和猶太食品都可以用棕櫚油。

      棕櫚油是健康的食用油脂

      陳君石表示,我們要科學的來認識油脂到底對健康有什么作用。關于我們吃進去的油脂,實際上油和脂不是一回事,我們習慣把動物性食物里稱為脂肪,在植物性食物里我們稱為油。而在它的成分上,都是由脂肪酸組成的,所以我們統稱為油脂。

      油脂從營養學界來講,往往有些營養學家的報告當中把油脂作為一個負面的成分,不太懂的老百姓大家在一起吃一頓飯的時候,也往往把油脂作為一個不好的東西。

      在論壇上,中外專家講到,“油脂是膳食當中不可缺少的成分,合理搭配是平衡膳食很重要的部分”。我們說平衡膳食絕不是要消除脂肪,而是要把它納入進來作為平衡膳食,關鍵在于搭配。

      棕櫚油由于含有飽和脂肪酸,直接導致消費者對于棕櫚油的安全性產生懷疑。聯合國糧農組織對有關棕櫚油脂肪代謝的報告顯示,不同的飽和脂肪酸對血脂的影響是不同的,食用棕櫚油對提高膽固醇以及低質蛋白膽固醇的作用效果要比動物油脂低。

      人們關注的棕櫚油與心腦血管疾病關聯的問題,中國營養協會與東南大學公共衛生學院此前做過一個項目,發現棕櫚油和橄欖油對人體血脂的營養沒有差異,換句話說,在一定程度上棕櫚油和橄欖油對人體血脂的調節作用是相同的。目前無論世界糧農組織還是中國糧油協會都已經確認了棕櫚油的安全性不僅合乎食品法典委員會的食品安全標準,而且是一種安全、健康的食用油脂。

      未來棕櫚油的可持續性發展

      二十一世紀,人類面對的最大挑戰是要創造一個可持續性的世界。現在大家都在強調在食品當中可持續性食物的供應,人類膳食不但要考慮自身健康,還要兼顧環境可持續。確保棕櫚油的生產過程是可持續的,關系著熱帶雨林的存續和健康。

      金光農業資源公司集團企業傳播部高級副總裁Anita Neville介紹說,油棕櫚是多年生的常青作物,全年都有產量,它的光合作用效率很高,種植油棕櫚前也無需對泥土做特殊處理。最重要的是,它的種植量只是占整個油類作物種植量的7%,但是它的產油量卻占到了整個食用油的38%。油棕櫚每公頃土地產油量遠高于任何油籽產油的作物,油棕果含油量高達50%以上,有“世界油王”之稱,產油量達到油菜籽的4倍,棉籽的5倍,葵花子的6倍,大豆的8倍。而且不會用太多殺蟲劑,只用一半的殺蟲劑,而且也不會用太多其他的化學用具。如果抵制棕櫚油,只會增加其他產油作物的種植,需要的農田面積會更大,導致森林遭受更多破壞。可以說棕櫚油是一個可以實現可持續性發展的油脂產品。

      據了解,為了促進可持續棕櫚油的生產及使用,二十一世紀初棕櫚油可持續發展圓桌會議(RSPO)成立,制定可持續棕櫚油的標準,促使棕櫚油供應鏈每個環節的成員執行此標準,從而推動可持續棕櫚油產品的生產、采購、融資和使用。RSPO公布的《棕櫚油可持續生產準則及標準》,要求新開發種植園與原住民不能有明顯沖突,不能破壞原始森林,不得砍伐有珍稀動物的林地,不得開墾泥炭深度超過3米的林地等。

      與會專家一致認為,每個人都關心食物,考慮食物與氣候和森林,而且在改變食物種植的方式,讓地球有更加穩定的生態系統。


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